I just flew from JFK to CDG on an Airbus 330 in a first class seat and connected in Paris to an Air France 220. On the AF flight I was on standby and got the last seat available, 28 A. I had a good view of the wing and although it was raining I got some interesting shots of the left wing. Here is what it looked like just before we started taxiing out:
Notice the rear of the wing is all in line. On the way to the runway, the pilots set the flaps for takeoff. Here is an image of that:
You can see that the flaps have been extended.
Later we landed at Berlin Brandenburg and the flaps were extended for landing. You can see the flaps were extended further giving the wing the ability to fly the plane at about 135 miles per hour to help the pilots land and then stop the aircraft on the runway.
In the shot above, you can see the aileron at the left end of the wing. There is another aileron on the right wing and when the pilots want to turn the aircraft, they roll the yoke into the turn. If they want to turn left, the left aileron will elevate, that will reduce the lift on the left wing while the right aileron will be lowered increasing the lift on the right wing and the aircraft will go into a roll to the left. The aircraft will start turning to the left. When they get to the heading they want, the pilots will center the yoke and the aircraft will roll level.
Above the flaps there are spoilers. The two spoilers to the left are in flight spoilers and they can be raised in flight to slow the aircraft down. Using them causes some loss of fuel efficiency because they prevent the aircraft from slowing down by cruising forward with the throttles closed. The pilots in Berlin tried to avoid using inflight spoilers to preserve fuel efficiency.
The spoiler to the right, close to the fuselage is a ground spoiler and comes up on the ground along with the flight spoilers to help force the airplane to slow down.. The image below shows the spoilers up on the runway after landing
Below is a view is a Pan Am plane with flaps extended for landing.
In the shot above you can see the stabilizer, which rotates to trim the aircraft as the weight changes while we burn fuel in flight. That gets set by trim switches in the cockpit. Behind the stabilizer there are elevators that the pilots use to start a descent or a climb. And standing vertically is the rudder and on the back end there is a panel that can be used to trim the aircraft if you loose power on an engine.
So, you now have an idea how pilots control a plane in flight.