So, as a human reader, you can be from anywhere on Planet Earth, and you are a Homo Sapiens.
We evolved! Genetic studies show that primates diverged from other mammals about 85 million years ago, MYA, and the earliest primate fossils appear, around 55 MYA.
Within the Hominoidea (apes) superfamily: Hominidae family diverged from the Hylobatidae (gibbon) family between 15–20 MYA;
African great apes (subfamily Homininae) diverged from orangutans (Ponginae) about 14 MYA;
Hominini tribe (humans, Australopithecines and other extinct biped genera, and chimpanzee) parted from the Gorillini tribe (gorillas) 8-9 MYA
Subtribes Hominina (humans and biped ancestors) and Panina (chimps) separated 4-7.5 MYA. Chimps are close to us genetically(1) But:
We had brothers:
There were several biped ancestors and several human species that evolved over millions of years, but they evolved slowly through genetics and their tools showed that to us.
About 2.5 MYA, the first humans evolved from the line of apes called Australopithecus. These humans started leaving Africa about 2 MYA.
Homo Rudolfensis evolved in East Africa,
Homo Erectus evolved in East Asia.
Homo Neanderthalis was in Western Asia and Europe
The unique DNA of a finger found in a cave, in Dinosova Siberia was classified as Homo Denison
Homo erectus remained in East Asia for 2 million years.
There continued to be genetic evolution and over the years several human species evolved. Homo Slowness evolved in Java and on Flores, which humans reached 850 TYA, the Homo florensis, dwarfed when sea level rose. (2)
By 150,ooo years ago Homo Sapiens had evolved in East Africa, and they looked like us.
Homo sapiens first left Africa about 100,000 years ago, but they couldn’t stay: the Neanderthals were there. But around 70,000 years ago, there seems to have been genetic changes that led to increased cognitive abilities in Homo sapiens. This Cognitive Revolution enabled us: to invent tools more quickly; to organize in much greater numbers; and to begin to tell tales of fiction.
After this evolution, Homo sapiens left Africa a second time. This time they went to every corner of the world. They reached Australia 45,000 YA.
By 16,000 YA, about 14,000 BC, Homo Sapiens crossed from Siberia to the America’s north west coast in Alaska. An ice age, that began 75,000 years ago, still had much ice along the west coast of America, but by 12,000 BC, we started to spread out over the continents and by 10,000 BC we had reached the southern tip of South America.
All these years, we shared the world with other humans, but by 10,000 years ago, only Homo sapiens remained.
We now know that Homo sapiens has a small percentage of Neanderthal DNA (1-4%) in the Middle East and Europe and Melanesians and Aboriginal Australians have up to 6% of Denisovian DNA.
So we are all Homo sapiens, living on our Earth.
Nice work. There are discoveries made regularly adding even more intrigue into the dubious history and nature of humans. Humans seem to be just about the only bump in the road that doesn’t seem to belong on planet Earth. Is there time for them to repent and make right around 10,000 years of gross negligence. Will Mother Earth and Father Sky allow them to stay or will they be exiled to the great beyond where human foolishness has been banned. Ted will fill in the gaps
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